We’ve just released a new experimental mode for Digital Voice called FreeDV 800XA. This uses the Codec 700C mode, 100 bit/s for synchronisation, and a 4FSK modem, actually the same modem that has been so successful for images from High Altitude Balloons.

FSK has the advantage of being a constant amplitude waveform, so efficient class C amplifiers can be used. However as it currently stands, 800XA has no real protection for the multipath common on HF channels, for example symbols that have an echo delayed by a few ms.

So I decided to start looking at equalisers. Some Googling suggested the Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA) Equaliser might be a suitable choice for FSK, and turned up some sample code on DSP stack exchange.

I had a bit of trouble getting the algorithm to work for bandpass FSK signals, so posted this question on CMA equalisation for FSK. I received some kind help, and eventually made the equaliser work on a simulated HF channel. Here is the Octave simulation cma.m

**How it works**

The equaliser attempts to correct for the channel using the received signal, which is corrupted by noise.

There is a “gotcha” in using a FIR filter to equalise a channel response. Consider a channel H(z) with a simple 3 sample impulse response h(n). Now we could equalise this with the exact inverse 1/H(z). Here is a plot of our example channel frequency response and the ideal equaliser which is exactly the inverse:

Now here is a plot of the impulse responses of the channel h(n), and equaliser h'(n):

The ideal equaliser response h'(n) is much longer than the 3 samples of the channel impulse response h(n). The CMA algorithm requires our equaliser to be a FIR filter. Counter-intuitively, we need to use an FIR equaliser with a number of taps significantly larger than the expected channel impulse response we are trying to equalise.

One explanation for this – the channel response can be considered to be a Finite Impulse response (FIR) filter H(z). The exact inverse 1/H(z), when expressed in the time domain, is an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter, which have, you know, an infinitely long impulse response!

**Simulation**

The figures below show the CMA equaliser doing it’s thing in a multipath channel with AWGN noise. In Figure 1 the error is reduced over time, and the lower plot shows the combined channel-equaliser impulse response. If the equaliser was perfect the combined channel-equaliser response would be 1.

Figure 2 below shows the CMA going to work on a FSK signal. The top subplot is the transmitted FSK signal, you can see the two different frequencies in the waveform. The middle plot shows the received signal, after it has been messed up by the multipath channel. It’s clear that the tone amplitudes are different. Looking carefully at the point where the tones transition (e.g. around sample 25 and 65) there is intersymbol interference due to multipath echoes, messing up the start of each FSK symbol.

However in the bottom subplot the equaliser has worked it’s magic and the waveform is looking quite nice. The tone levels are nearly equal and much of the ISI removed. Yayyyyyy.

Figure 4 shows the magnitude frequency response at several stages in the simulation. The top subplot is the channel response. It’s a comb filter, typical of multipath channels. The middle subplot is the equaliser response. Ideally, this should be the exact inverse of the channel. It’s pretty close at the low end but seems to lose it’s way at very low and high frequencies. The lower plot is the combined response, which is close to 0dB at the low frequencies. Cool.

Figure 4 is the transmit spectrum of the modem signal (top), and the spectrum after the channel has mangled it (lower). Note one tone is now lower than the other. Also note that the modem signal only has energy in the low-mid range of the spectrum. This might explain why the equaliser does a good job in that region of the spectrum – it’s where we have energy to drive the adaption.

**Problems for HF Digital Voice**

Unfortunately the CMA equaliser only works well at high SNRs, and takes seconds to converge. I am interested in low SNR (around 0dB in a 3000 Hz noise bandwidth) and it’s Push To Talk (PTT) radio so we a need fast initial training, around 100ms. Then it must follow the time varying HF channel, continually retraining on the fly.

For further work I really should measure BER versus Eb/No for a variety of SNRs and convergence times, and measure what BER improvement we are buying with equalisation. BER is King, much easier that squinting at time domain waveforms.

If the CMA cost function was used with known information (like pilot symbols or the Unique Word we have in 800XA) it might be able to work faster. This would involve deconvolution on the fly, rather than using iterative or adaptive techniques.

**Links**

Jonathan Olds (Jonti) has been Experimening with digital SCA signals. This includes an OQPSK modem with a C implementation of a CMA equaliser.