Building a BlackfinOne

Over the past week I have been assembling, debugging and testing my own BlackfinOne board:

During this time I have had a lot of help from the BlackfinOne community, in particular via ongoing chat sessions with Wojtek (pronounced Voycheck) Tryc. Yesterday, I booted uClinux on hardware that I had helped design, soldered and debugged myself. A tremendously satisfying experience.

Building hardware is a bit like software – you go quickly through stages of construction; get stuck for a day or so on a tough bug; then rapidly scream through construction again until you hit the next bug. By documenting some of my experiences I hope I can help other people with similar projects.

The BlackfinOne

The BlackfinOne is a uClinux board based on the Blackfin DSP/RISC processor. There are several features of the BlackfinOne project that make it a great project for hackers:

  1. The design is open as in GPL. Free as in freedom/libre. Anyone can use, re-use, and modify the design, just like open source software.
  2. The BlackfinOne has been designed using the gEDA open source CAD tools. This means the design can be edited without needing expensive proprietary CAD software.
  3. Quite remarkably, it is implemented (and runs well) on a two layer PCB. To run a high speed digital design (it has a 400MHz clock and 133MHz bus) on a two layer board is generally regarded as impossible. Standard engineering practice says that you must have ground plane layers to ensure signal integrity and to make routing the PCB possible. For example the Blackfin STAMP designs uses 8 layers. The trick that the original designers (Ivan Danov and Dimitar Penev) used was to place the high speed SDRAM immediately behind the Blackfin chip, on the opposite side of the PCB. This minimises the length of the nets, ensuring signal integrity despite the absence of a continuous ground plane. Using two layers makes low quantity fabrication of the PCB cheap and easy for hackers compared to a multilayer PCB.
  4. A non-BGA version of the Blackfin was used to make soldering easy for hackers.
  5. It is based around the Blackfin community (sponsored by Analog Devices, the makers of the Blackfin chip) which has very good uClinux support and a range of open hardware building blocks (such as USB and other interfaces) for the Blackfin.

The initial BlackfinOne V1.0 design (by Ivan and Dimitar) first appeared in mid 2006. This design had SDRAM, Flash, and serial support. I was interested in using it as a DSP motherboard for my telephony work so I (along with several other people) helped add dual Ethernet ports and a USB port to create the BlackfinOne V2.0. Many other people (both commercial companies and private developers) have also contributed to the hardware and software side.

Several BlackfinOne V2.0 boards have now been made and brought to life by people all over the world. For the remainder of this post, when I say BlackfinOne (or bf1 for short) I mean BlackfinOne V2.0.

The schematics for the bf1 are useful to understand the rest of this post.

Building an Igloo JTAG cable

To bring up the BlackfinOne (for example to flash the boot loader) a JTAG cable is required. I built mine using some spare parts and a spare PCB I had laying around. I built a copy of the Igloo JTAG cable. My Igloo is not a shining example of hardware construction:

By the way I obtain the 3.3V power for the cable from the board being tested/flashed, rather than using the 5V to 3.3V regulator suggested in the Igloo design. A nicer version of the same Igloo circuit was constructed by Wojtek (pronounced Voycheck) Tryc:

I tested my Igloo using a BF533 STAMP board. The idea was to test the unknown hardware (my JTAG cable) using known working hardware (the STAMP). To drive the cable I used a version of the jtagprog software that has been modified slightly for the BF532 processor and BlackfinOne platforms.

It is important to use the CVS version of the jtagprog software as this has been modified to work with the latest versions of the BF532 chip. If you use the non-CVS version you may get a “stepping error”, which means the software doesn’t recognise this version of the BF532 silicon.

OK, so I tested the cable on a BF533 STAMP board and it seemed to work OK:

jtag> cable parallel 0x378 IGLOO
Initializing Excelpoint IGLOO JTAG Cable on parallel port at 0x378
jtag> detect
IR length: 5
Chain length: 1
Device Id: 00110010011110100101000011001011
  Manufacturer: Analog Devices
  Part:         BF533
  Stepping:     3
  Filename:     /usr/local/share/jtag/analog/bf533/bf533
jtag> initbus bf533_stamp
jtag> detectflash 0x2000000

The last command “detectflash” gave me lots of information on the STAMPs flash chip. As a further test I also used the cable to re-flash a BF533 STAMP with a new version of u-boot. This proved that despite the rough construction my cable was OK (thanks Wojtek for this suggestion).

Other JTAG cables can be used as well, for example other developers have successfully used the JTAGblue cable which emulates very popular Xilinx Parallel – III.

For reference here is an example of a jtag session from a working BlackfinOne. However it took me a while to get that far, as described below!

Tools and Tips for Surface Mount Assembly

The BlackfinOne uses some fine pitch surface mount chips and resistors and capacitors in the 0603 size range. So you need to think a little bit about assembly.

To load my BlackfinOne I used a stereo microscope like this one in this picture (being used by my wife Rosemary whose brief geeky phase is regretfully now over):

I bought mine new for about $700 but there are very nice ones available on e-bay for about $100 up. A much cheaper alternative is an illuminated magnifier:

But trust me – a stereo microscope will change your (soldering) life once your buy one, it really is worth the investment. My eyes aren’t that great but I can work all day under the microscope with no problems or eyestrain. Mine is variable zoom 10 to 40x but I find even 10 x is just a bit too much and I never use the variable zoom. So I suggest fixed magnification in the 5 – 7x range is just right, however it’s a personal choice.

Wojtek bought this microscope for around US$100. He finds the fixed 15x magnification perfect for him:

If you can, get a microscope that has circular illumination all around the objective lens. Mine just illuminates from one direction which gives me shadows so I have to rotate the work a lot. For US$45 Wojtek found this great LED based circular light that clamps onto his microscope:

Here is a view through the microscope of one edge of the Blackfin chip. A sewing needle is in the picture for comparison.

Here is a similar image from Wojtek, through his microscope. You can just see how much fun we are having with the toys we bought for this project!

I found Darrell Harmon’s notes on surface mount soldering very useful. I bought the tweezers and flux that he recommends from Digikey and also strongly recommend them. The flux makes a very big difference in surface mount work, I have never really needed flux previously in through hole work. The flux really makes the solder “leap” onto the parts being soldered.

I also use and recommend the same procedure Darrel suggests for soldering 0603 parts; blob of solder on one pad, then slide the part in with the tweezers. Thanks Darrell.

Wojtek has also done some research on soldering irons, from a recent email:

There is 2 leaders: the Hako 936 and Metcal PS-800. The Metcal is very small, light (!) and reliable. The tips are hot in just few seconds, and are available in variety of sizes and temperatures. For most I use 650 tips, which are designated for non-RoHS components, for ground planes and headers, I use 750 – 1.5mm tip which makes it much easier (750 is RoHS temperature). The Metcal does not have a dial to change a temperature, you change it by replacing tips (2 seconds, pull and push operation). The Metcal is available from DigiKey at very competitive price.

Flux Removal is Very Important

As Darrell notes that Digikey flux is conductive, so you really need to get it all off ASAP after soldering or it will cause problems. For example I added some flux before soldering a 10M resistor (part of the bf1 clock circuit). After soldering, the resistance across the resistor measured only 340k! Some vigorous scrubbing with the flux remover and brush fixed it, and the 10M resistor once again measured as 10M. In one or two cases I have even had to remove parts as the flux was trapped underneath and not easily removed.

I use a spray can of solvent with a little brush attached to the nozzle for flux removal. Wojtek actually gave his BlackfinOne a bath (full immersion in water) with good results. Wojtek also uses this flux remover:

Both Wojtek and I have fixed many problems that were caused by flux left on the board. So Scrub-Scrub-Scrub that flux away!

From Wojtek:

It is critical to remove flux as soon as soldering is finished. Different methods could be used, solvents and a water bath both work great. But leaving flux on PCB for hours or days could potentially affect a board in a very negative way (possible even ruining it) – this stuff contains acid and is corrosive!

Initial Assembly and Smoke Test

I started with a bare PCB board, kindly supplied by Jeff Knighton:

I first loaded all the surface mount passives, then Blackfin chip, SDRAM, Flash and other chips. By loading the surface mount parts first the board was nice and flat and so easy to work with, especially under the microscope I use for surface mount parts. I loaded the large and bulky through hole passives last, as they prevent the board from sitting flat, hindering surface mount work a little.

My approach was to load various sections of the board progressively. For example I first started with the CPU and memory but left the Ethernet and USB ports unloaded for the initial tests. In hindsight I am not sure if this is a good idea, it is easy to miss something this way (like a pull up resistor you didn’t think you needed at this stage of construction).

If you are loading a V2.0.0 PCB it is important to read and fix BlackfinOne PCB Errors, this only takes about 10 minutes. These problems will be fixed on later PCBs.

After loading the CPU/memory section of the board here are the initial “smoke test” steps I when through:

  1. I checked my parts orientation against the reference photos of the BlackfinOne, for example I made sure that the writing on my chips faced the same way as the photos. Especially that damn expensive 64M SD-RAM chip.
  2. Before powering up I checked the resistance between the 3.3V rail and ground. About 300 ohms, which seemed OK. I would have been worried about a dead short.
  3. The next step was to apply power and sniff for that familiar smell of molten silicon. I used a variable power supply first with the current limit set to 100mA. Just in case I had done something stupid (a common occurrence). Mmm, no smell. Feel the top of all chips, no burnt fingers. Excellent. A better start than most projects.
  4. I measured the 3.3V rail to make sure the switching power supply came up OK. Check.
  5. Measured the 1.2V rail – this was present which proved that the Blackfin chip was doing something, as the Blackfin contains the switching power supply circuit for the 1.2V rail.
  6. With the scope I checked that the 10MHz system clock was present. Check, another sign of Blackfin life.
  7. Check reset line is H. Ooops, it’s stuck L. That means the system will be held in reset forever!

I took me a couple of hours to find the reset problem. The capacitor C53 that sets the duration of the reset pulse wasn’t fully charging due to some residual flux on the board. I gave the reset part of the board a good scrub with the solvent and reset started working OK.

Programming the CPLD was fairly straight forward – I used the Verilog file bf1_cpld.vl from the hw-0.1 CVS repository. This needed to be renamed to bf1_cpld.v for my Xilinx synthesis tools to understand it and don’t forget to include the pin locking file bf1_cpld.ucf when you synthesise the design. Free (but not open) synthesis tools are available from Xilinx for Windows or Linux. I used an ancient Windows version and a serial JTAG cable to program the CPLD.

To save time, you are welcome to use my xlinx_bf1.jed file, just program the CPLD using your Xilinx JTAG cable.

Flash Problems

The next step was to connect the JTAG cable to my BF532 and try to flash the board. This is a “nervous” step – it’s the first time you actually get to see if the Blackfin chip is responding via the JTAG port. It’s also where you find out if you have soldered any memory chips on backwards.

The jtag tools detected the BF532 OK:

jtag> detect
IR length: 5
Chain length: 1
Device Id: 01010010011110100101000011001011
  Manufacturer: Analog Devices
  Part:         BF533
  Stepping:     5
  Filename:     /usr/local/share/jtag/analog/bf533/bf533

Note that the BF532 is detected as a BF533. This doesn’t seem to matter in practice.

However when I tried the next few steps:

jtag> initbus bf532_bf1
jtag> detectflash 0x2000000

It couldn’t find the flash chip.

My first suspicion was the CPLD, maybe I had messed up something like the pin locking and the control signals like AOE and FLASH_CS weren’t getting through to the flash chip. So I checked the control signals by watching them on the scope while I tried to read words to the flash:

jtag> peek 0x20000000

The signals were asserted when I did the read which suggested the CPLD was OK.

I then checked out the flash data sheet to work out how it should be responding. The flash chips have state machines built in, you can send commands to them and they respond in certain ways. One of the commands can tell you all about the flash chip. This is what JTAG tries to send when you run the “detectflash” command.

You can generate these commands and read response to the flash chip using the jtag peek/poke commands. For example on the BF533:

jtag> poke 0x20000055 0x98
jtag> peek 0x20000020
bus_read(0x20000020) = 0x00000051 (81)

Writing 0×98 to 0×55 on the chip (mapped to 0×20000050 on the bf1) puts the chip into “common flash interface” mode. In this mode, address 0×20 should always return 0×51 (the letter Q in ASCII). This is a good way to test if the Blackfin is talking to the Flash chip OK.

The same flash command/response on the bf1 showed just 0xff responses, which suggested either the command wasn’t getting through, or something was wrong with reading the response. I had already checked the control signals, so the next step was to check the address and data bus. Damn. This meant 32 nets to manually check.

To check the electrical connections of each net I used two methods:

  1. Under the microscope, I applied gentle pressure to each pin with a sewing needle. If the pin moved when I applied pressure, it would indicate a bad solder joint. This check didn’t find any problems.
  2. I then tested the continuity of every solder joint on the major chips using my multimeter. I placed one probe on the top of each pin, and the other on the pad it was soldered too. This is tricky to do on fine pitched pins, so I improvised some fine tipped probes (see below)!

While I was checking some pins on the SDRAM I accidentally touched two adjacent pins (pins 1 and 2) and my multimeter went “beep”, indicating a short. Hmmm, that doesn’t look right. Turns out that the D0 net was shorted to VCC, which was why the flash chip wasn’t responding. Any commands were being mangled as D0 was stuck H.

I spent an hour trying to work out why. It could be a soldering error or a PCB fault. However the track in question lives mainly under the the Blackfin and SDRAM so there was no way to check it visually without removing these chips, something I don’t have the tools for.

I used my multimeter to measure the resistance of the short. It was 0.4 ohms between VCC and D0 near the SDRAM, but 0.8 ohms between VCC and D0 on the flash chip. This suggests the short was nearer the SDRAM, right where I couldn’t get to it.

Fun with Burning Out Shorts

One fun technique I tried was to burn out the short. I have used this technique before on production PCBs that have shorts. You apply a high current (Amps), low voltage (say 0.5-1V) across the short and try to burn it out. Literally. You sometimes even hear a nice crack. It is safe for the logic chips as the low voltage means they won’t conduct any significant currents. It works best with shorts that measure a few ohms. Small enough to pass lots of current so they get hot, but larger than the parts of the track you want to keep. Too small and you risk burning out the wanted part of the track. To large and it won’t get hot enough.

Anyway, it didn’t work this time, the short passed 3A happily and I wasn’t going to risk going higher in case I vaporised the whole D0 net! So I cut out the offending parts of the D0 net and replaced them with some fine wire. Ugly, but when I fired up jtag again and there was my flash chip! Whew. Problem fixed after a day bug hunting. On to the next one.

Bug Hunts and the Geeky Mindset

If all the above sounds very cool and logical rest assured it wasn’t.

When you are in the middle of a bug hunt two things happen.

The first: the logic centres of your brain shut down. You don’t think straight. You bounce from one theory to another.

The second: you don’t want to work on anything else. You get obsessed and can’t leave it alone. Worse, doing anything else is impossible. Intense bug hunts lead to late nights, neglect of significant others, no exercise, fatigue and a further dip in intellect.

Despite all that, I really enjoy a good bug hunt. When you come through at the end, the satisfaction is supreme. And you always end up learning lots along the way that comes in useful later. Call me a geek, call me a nerd, or call my wife and commiserate with her.

Flashing problems

This was an strange one. Now that jtag could actually see my flash chip I tried to flash the chip:

jtag> cable parallel 0x378 IGLOO
jtag> detect
Jtag> initbus bf532_bf1
jtag> detectflash 0x20000000
jtag> flashmem 0x20000000 /path/to/u-boot.bin

However I kept getting verify errors. Whole sectors of the flash (each sector is 64k long) were not being written. I tried a few things like checking the JTAG signals for ringing (they were OK) and shortening the JTAG cables just in case I has signal integrity problems like ringing on the JTAG clock signal. Still verify errors.

Each attempt was very time consuming as flashing via the JTAG is slow, it takes about 20 minutes to flash the 128k u-boot program.

I was in chat contact with Wojtek at this time and he suggested I try the Igloo JTAG cable on a STAMP board. So I tried flashing u-boot onto a BF533 STAMP and it worked fine. U-boot even ran OK on the STAMP. This was a good test as it confirmed my Igloo was OK. One variable removed from the bug hunt.

So then back to the bf1 board. Suddenly it is now flashing OK! Despite nothing changing. So I tried it three more times and each time it flashed and verified OK. So I don’t know. It doesn’t always boil down to logical cause and effect. Sometimes stuff just happens. So I “declared victory” and moved on.

Now I had u-boot starting up OK when I powered up – I could interact via the serial port. This was pretty exciting, as it proved that all the major components – Blackfin, flash, SDRAM, and CPLD were working fine. The bf1 was talking to me. So I powered down and soldered on all the parts for one Ethernet port. The idea was to use Ethernet and tftp to download a uClinux image.

Torpedoed by U-Boot and Ethernet

After loading the Ethernet parts I booted into u-boot and tried to tftp. Something was happening, but there were lots of tftp time out “T” symbols and only the occasional OK packet. Ping worked OK from u-boot, but not tftp or dhcp.

I did some packet sniffing on my host and found out that packets were being received OK from the bf1, but it looked like anything the host sent back was being ignored by the bf1. So I checked the rx side wiring of the Ethernet port but couldn’t find any problems. During tftp attempts I could also see what looked like valid Ethernet signals (1Vpp nice looking data signals) on the tx and rx nets at the RJ45 connector.

I was using a binary u-boot image that I found on the bf1 site. I wanted a way to inspect packets being received and that meant I needed to compile u-boot from source. So I checked out the CVS version of u-boot for the BlackfinOne and tried to compile. However I kept getting linker errors. This is very frustrating, you are trying to fix one bug and keep getting caught by others! Such is life.

Eventually a post to the bf1 forum solved the linker problem – there was a recent bf1 u-boot fix just checked into CVS. Now I could compile u-boot and start inserting some test code. So I flashed the CVS version of u-boot and hit another problem – now Ethernet wouldn’t work at all (not even ping) and the MAC address was always a string of 0x00s. This was a step backwards from the previous binary where the MAC was set up OK and at least ping worked!

One other problem was slowing me down – that 20 minute time it took to flash u-boot every time I wanted to add a printf to test something. This made debugging very tedious and frustrating. It felt like I was getting no where fast.

One thing I did discover is that it is a good idea to erase the flash sectors before flashing using jtag, just to make sure:

jtag> eraseflash 0x20000000 2

When I didn’t perform this step I sometimes found I was booting a previous version of u-boot, not the one I had just flashed!

After a break I thought of another idea to help speed up debugging. I used a trick I read about in the Blackfin u-boot documentation – you can download a new u-boot image into SDRAM using u-boot, then execute the new u-boot image using the “go” command. As I didn’t have Ethernet working I used ymodem to download u-boot images to SDRAM. This worked really well and enabled me to test and debug in 2 minute cycles – much faster.

Note that this technique doesn’t work for all u-boot images, for example when I tried to run a u-boot image configured for 64M RAM with a 32M u-boot it failed and I needed to reflash instead. Some people have reported that ymodem doesn’t work for them, they use the kermit protocol instead.

Two iterations later I had the bug nailed. The problem was that u-boot was trying to read the MAC from the little serial EEPROM used by the Ethernet chip. However I hadn’t loaded this chip, and even if I had it would be un-programmed and the MAC would be all 0xff’s. So after some reading and grepping of the u-boot source I changed this line in include/configs/bf1.h from:

#define CONFIG_DM9000_HAVE_EEPROM 1

to:

#undef CONFIG_DM9000_HAVE_EEPROM

This allows the MAC to be set by the values compiled into bf1.h, or the environment variables used by u-boot. If this option is defined then the eeprom contents always overrides the MAC from the environment.

Suddenly my u-boot Ethernet was up and downloading images via tftp just fine. Cool. After 1.5 days of chasing this bug it never looked so good to see those tftp “*” symbols flashing across the screen as an image was downloaded. I also learnt a lot about u-boot and how Ethernet drivers work which was interesting.

So now we are getting real close – time to build a uClinux image!

Building uClinux for the BlackfinOne

To create a uClinux-dist for the BlackfinOne I copied all of the files in
uClinux-dist-R06R2-RC2-bf1-diff-files.061219.tar.bz2
on top of a fresh 2006R2 Rc5 uClinux-dist using “cp -R”.

This was set up for the jffs2 file system, however I wanted to try a ramfs config as I was more familiar with that from my STAMP work. This was probably a mistake, as I spent several hours working out how to get this working. uClinux was starting OK but kernel panicking when it couldn’t mount root. I was using the u-boot command:

bf1> tftp 0x1000000 uImage
bf1> bootm 0x1000000

To download and boot the uImage. The uImage file combines the kernel and the root files system in one compressed image.

At Wojtek’s suggestion (again via chat) I compared the boot sequence of the bf1 to my STAMPs. I noticed something odd about the Memory Map section of the boot sequence. When I booted the STAMP I was getting something like this.

Memory map:
  text      = 0x00001000-0x00107f94
  init      = 0x00108000-0x00115508
  data      = 0x00115b4c-0x00145e60
  stack     = 0x00116000-0x00118000
  bss       = 0x00145e60-0x00153394
  available = 0x00153394-0x03800000
  rootfs    = 0x07700000-0x07f00000
  DMA Zone  = 0x07f00000-0x08000000

Note the “rootfs” line. This says that 8M is allocated to the rootfs. This was the BF533 STAMP, which has 128M available, which means the top address is 0×8000 0000. Note that the “available” memory is about 57M. Now when I compared the rootfs line for the bf1, I saw:

rootfs    = 0x00600000-0x001f00000

Which is 25M allocated for rootfs. Now at this stage I only had my bf1 configured for 32M, so that rootfs was consuming most of the available memory. In fact when I checked the available line, only 416k was free for the entire operating system! I traced the problem to the vendors/IvanDanov/BLACKFINONEV2/Makefile. The BLOCKS line that controls the size of the rootfs was set to 25600 rather than 8000. As I mentioned earlier, this is only really a problem if you are using ramfs.

I changed the line back to BLOCKS=8000, rebuilt the uImage and managed to (finally) boot uClinux. So I ran around the house telling everyone but nobody cared much (except my baby son, as discussed below). Oh well, it still made my day!

A little more work to u-boot and kernel configuration and I had a 64M BlackfinOne booting OK. Wojtek showed me how to configure u-boot for 64M:

  1. In board/bf1/config.mk make TEXT_BASE = 0x03fe0000.
  2. In include/configs/bf1.h set the #define CONFIG_MEM_SIZE to 64.
  3. make mclean;make mrproper; make bf1_config;make.

To configure uClinux for 64M “make linux_menuconfig and set “Blackfin Processor Options – Use SDRAM chip” to your memory chip, then rebuild uClinux-dist with the usual “make”.

If you have built a 64M BlackfinOne you are welcome to try my u-boot and uClinux uImages. They might be useful for initial testing and save you the steps of compiling your own. Once you have flashed u-boot-bf1v2-64M.bin, place uImagebf1v2-64M on your tftp server and on the bf1 console:

bf1> tftp 0x1000000 uImagebf1v2-64M
bf1> tftp 0x1000000

Note that this uImage uses ramfs not jffs2, and I used the -75 memory chip. This should work OK with the slightly faster -7E chips.

While experimenting I noticed that you need a u-boot configured for 64M to boot a 64M uClinux, otherwise uClinux bombed for me shortly after the uImage was uncompressed. However you can boot a 32M linux using a 64M u-boot.

I set the Ethernet MAC and IP for uClinux using environment variables in u-boot that are passed to uClinux, using the addnet script:

bf1>print
ethaddr=02:80:ad:20:31:b8
gatewayip=192.168.1.1
netmask=255.255.255.0
ipaddr=192.168.1.30
serverip=192.168.1.2
bootargs=root=/dev/mtdblock0 rw
addnet=setenv bootargs $(bootargs) ip=$(ipaddr):$(serverip):$(gatewayip):$(netmask):$(hostname):eth0:off
flashboot=run addnet;bootm 0x20040000

Flashboot is called when the bf1 starts, which calls the addnet script, and boots uClinux. I would rather have u-boot set just the MAC and let uClinux set the IP through /etc/rc, however I haven’t worked out how to do this just yet.

Open Hardware

The BlackfinOne project is a great example of open hardware development. There is a growing community of developers that have contributed to hardware, software, and even tracking down problem parts for each other. There are parts being air-mailed all over the world as one person helps another get parts that are tough to find in their country. An interesting example of open/community development being applied to hardware – obtaining parts is not a problem for open software development!

Web-based parts supply companies like Digikey have helped make this sort of project possible. You can now easily buy many obscure parts and get them delivered anywhere in the world in a week or so. The web has helped hardware hacking get easier, and made it possible to build complex, sophisticated designs like the bf1.

Chat and mailing lists proved invaluable. Wojtek and I were in constant chat contact, and we used the bf1 forums to help us when we got stuck. Even though at this time of year we are about 12 hours apart in time (and about 40 degrees C in temperature). Just being able to explain each our problems was very useful – it made the problem clear in your own head when you have to express it to another person. I have been developing hardware for about 20 years and this as truly a new way of working for me. Nothing new for software development I guess, but very different for hardware (at least for me). In my experience (mainly in smaller companies), the hardware guy has often worked more or less alone.

Conclusion

This has been a really great experience. I assembled my very own uClinux hardware, then brought it up through various stages until it booted. I still can’t believe that I actually soldered together my very own Linux machine! If you are interested in trying out a hardware project, I thoroughly recommend this project. Great design, great community. Open hardware in action.

When I told my baby son about my working BlackfinOne, this was his reaction:

I know exactly how he feels!

Thanks

Wojtek for your review of this post and photos.

amount interest negative loan of capitalizationloans 10 dollar paydaypayday law 10 new 15 loan100 payday loan faxemergency 1000 loan1000 loan business opploan no check credit 10000il equity 125 value home loan Mappanasonic ringtone 55 gdmobile ringtone t 6010ringtone ppc sprint 6700ringtone nextel 7100ito how ringtone 8125911 ringtone 69999a 670 ringtonesyour a900 make ringtones Mapringtones chocolate to lg convertcool metallica ringtonescountry ringtoneringtones crazy freecreate ringtones free share andcreate ringtone my owncreate cellular us for ringtonesmidi ringtone creating Map

34 comments to Building a BlackfinOne

  • Daniel Chang

    David, Well done.

  • Yet Another Amature Blackfin board builder….

    David Rowe's Web Site, is the second web site which I found as Amature*1 Blackfin Board making. In his Blog, you can see his BlackfinOne Board. When I see the Amateras board, I was very shocked that one independent engineer creates his onw board. …

  • Hello, I would love to specify your jtag cable assembly, and the required software. I have an old Analog Devices Sharc evaluation board, and would love to get jtag connected to it, to learn a new tool.

    Commercial jtag products vary wildly in price. What are the differences that matter, software? I want to whack one together, just like you!

    This is a great document. Very inspiring.

    MegaFlop-On!

  • Li

    Hi, David

    Can i use Igloo(http://blackfin.uclinux.org/gf/download/frsrelease/317/1070/JTAG_Programmer_for_BF1.zip) JTAG cable for XILINX and BF532 both?

  • Errol Neal

    Excellent. Good job David.

  • david

    Hi Li,

    I haven’t worked out how to use the Igloo for the Xilinx, but I would
    love to know how if you work it out!

    Cheers,

    David

  • Michele

    I’m a software’s guy but what you wrote makes me wish to play with hardware…

    Thaks a lot for your blog….

    Regards

    –Michele

  • Hello Li,

    IGLOO cable can be used to program both CPLD and Flash devices by using patched version of jtagprog tools.

    Refer to my trial blog :D
    http://jakwir.net/using-igloo-to-program-xilinx-cpld/

    -didik

  • M. Shokuie

    Hi David,

    Its fantastic, Im a software man but amazed of your work. I have a question, you think one can use such a board with some manipulation for an IP Phone?

    Regards.

  • david

    Yes, you certainly could build a (totally open) IP phone this way. I would really like to build a Speex-phone one day. Only missing parts are a keypad and sound blaster type audio I/O.

  • [...] I have been developing some open hardware designs for Embedded Asterisk IP Telephony and have also have some popular blog posts on open hardware. [...]

  • [...] I have been developing some open hardware designs for Embedded Asterisk IP Telephony and have also have some popular blog posts on open hardware. [...]

  • jorge

    david I
    I’m Jorge from mexico I’m interest that your hadware aplication blackfine, I need support 60 IP lines, But your aplication has one EI, my cuestion is how manny IP lines support your hadware aplication blackfine, and you have phone number…
    thanks Wait your answer…
    Jorge

  • david

    Hi Jorge, several people have run 50 SIP calls OK on a Blackfin. I think the system is memory limited at the moment rather than CPU, so this could be improved with some hacking of Asterisk.

  • jorge

    Hi Steve thanks for your answer, what do you recomend me for work 60 IP phone lines, what processor and what appliation
    thans for your time

  • sudha

    hello
    i found your work very interesting
    i have a good introduction to programming of blackfinn processors.
    i am in urgent need of finding an interesting final year project topic(undergraduate level).
    can u suggest good projects on blackfinn involving usage of both software and hardware skills.

  • david

    There are several interesting tasks for the IP04 that would make nice projects for an undergarduate:

    http://www.rowetel.com/ucasterisk/ip04.html

    Or in the oslec project:

    http://www.rowetel.com/ucasterisk/oslec.html#further

    This is an example of what is possible – a local undergraduate project:

    http://www.rowetel.com/blog/?p=32

  • raghu

    Thoroughly enjoyable

  • don

    Absolutely fantastic project. I’d love to see more information about the equipment in your lab if you have anything- I’m curious about your microscope for example- have you ever tried the Mantis microscopes (Mantis Elite, etc.)? I use Eagle a lot and I am curious about your opinions on Eagle versus geda- are there aspects of geda that you feel are incomplete or problematic? Have you used Eagle and are there aspects of it that you feel are incomplete? Any opinions on oscilloscopes- DSO versus analog- what speeds people should be using, etc?

    Any information you can share on getting started on these sorts of projects would be appreciated.

    Thanks for all the great work.

  • david

    Hi Don,

    Thanks for your kind words :-)

    Actually I don’t know much about microscopes, I just bought one that was recommended by a local dealer. In hindsight I suspect I could have gotten away with a much cheaper one (mine was AUD$900 new). I figure any stereo microscope with 5 – 10 x magnification would be OK.

    I haven’t played with Eagle, however I find gEDA to be OK for what I do. gschem I like a lot, better than many Windows schematic editors I have used (mainly older Protel versions). gEDA PCB gets the job done but can be a little tedious to use for bigger jobs (like the BlackfinOne). To that end I would like to help improve it. I really enjoyed using Icarus (the Verilog support).

    Overall I really like gEDA as (i) its open and free (ii) it runs on Linux and (iii) it uses text files which are easy to manipulate in clever ways using Perl.

    I have Tek 520 500MHz 4 ch DSO which was kindly donated for my work. It’s a high end scope from about 10 years ago. To be honest I think that a lower bandwidth DSO (like sub 100MHz, 2ch) would be fine for most of my work. I think the storage part is the most important, just the ability to easily view digital signals that aren’t periodic. For example debugging a SPI interface.

    BTW my philosophy on test equipment is design so you wont need it, i.e. put your effort into careful design and reducing the bug count rather than spending hours using a scope to debug. It takes much less time to carefully check a design than to chase down a bug.

    Cheers,

    David

  • don

    Thanks for the quick response.

    I actually have a Mantis Elite with 4x and 8x lenses which has worked out well for me- though the single eyepiece is an odd experience at first.

    I haven’t used gEDA though a friend of mine is pushing for it. I use Eagle for many of the same reasons- text files I can manipulate in Perl as well as Linux support (actually Windows and Mac OSX support too). It’s PCB editor is a lot easier to deal with than PCB which is why I originally started using it. Many of the board houses support Eagle files natively and it seems to get used for some pretty complex designs. I’ll have to give gEDA a try as well though.

    I actually tend to use my scope more for reverse engineering than for my own designs. I try to take the same course that you do- design it right the first time :)

    That said- I was just evaluating a new TekTronix TDS-2024B scope and was so utterly disgusted I had to go searching for another model- hence my question. The 2024B is a 200MHz 4 channel. Unfortunately the screen is passive matrix and is useless for any sort of shifting signal (even the frequency counter is unreadable when it changes) and the scope can only record 2500 data points- as opposed to 25k-1M for some of their competitors. Your scope is an older, higher end model which is nice.

    Again, thanks for all the info and for all of the work on the PBX- I’m going to order a pair of them for myself and perhaps jump in and help on some of the hardware.

  • mehdi

    i’am interested about developing a complete solution on IP phone it will be built around the ADSP BF537 AND THE FAMOUS IP codec tlv320ai22 from texas
    if anyone has sugestion please contact me

  • You don’t need a microscope to solder 0.50 pitch components… There is a very easy and 100% sure method… First position the element, apply flux
    (no-clean is preferred), you will need a special tip. Check out this video:
    http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=9165084316480151270

  • Hi Mam Rose,

    May I ask a simple design of a single FXS?

    I am going to connect this 1 FXS to an Asterisk Server
    at this moment it is quite difficult for me to design a 4FXS
    so I would rather try a single FXS

    Thanks

    Christopher M. Coballes
    ASTI-DOST,Philippines

  • Just came across this blog thru google. This is a great post, thanks

  • Hi…

    You are maintaining a coll blog. I was in search of such open hardware projects using gEDA.
    I have done a small work of PCB etching using gEDA and PCB.

    http://jeffrey.co.in/blog/2008/12/homemade-pcb-using-geda/

    Please keep doing your design’s using free software.
    I was shocked seeing your gEDA design’s. where can I get cool design’s using gEDA?

  • david

    Anthony, good question, you could try the gEDA mailing lists.

  • [...] very low resistance, giving the same reading as a dead short on my multimeter. I tried the trick of high current (3A) low voltage (0.3V) in an attempt to “burn” the short out but that didn’t help [...]

  • [...] of a small crumb to the naked eye (about 1mm by 0.4mm), but surprisingly you can hand solder them under a microscope with a little [...]

  • Siddharth Ravikumar

    Hi Mr David

    That is some awesome stuff that you have done.

    >> used an ancient Windows version and a serial JTAG cable to program the CPLD.

    >>To save time, you are welcome to use my xlinx_bf1.jed file, just program the CPLD using your Xilinx JTAG cable.

    Regading the above,

    Could you please give me the link to that Windows version program and can I use the IGLOO cable with that utility to program the CPLD

    Thanks a lot

  • david

    Hello Siddharth,

    The IGLOO cable is used to program the boot loader into flash via JTAG. The Xilinx version is use is so old (late 90′s) now but any Xilinx starter kit would do, they usually come with a cable.

    - David

  • Siddharth Ravikumar

    Hi Mr David

    Thank you for your prompt reply.

    I am currently using the latest version of iMPACT software along with a home made Xilinx parallel download cable.

    The iMPACT tool correctly detects the CPLD XC9536XL on the IP04 board but the read IDCODE operation fails and so i’m not able to perform any of the READ,PROGRAM,ERASE,VERIFY operations as well.

    >>INFO:iMPACT:583 – ’1′: The idcode read from the device does not match the idcode in the bsdl File.

    INFO:iMPACT:1578 – ’1′: Device IDCODE : 00001111111111111111111111111110

    INFO:iMPACT:1579 – ’1′: Expected IDCODE: 00001001011000000010000010010011

    I was wondering whether you ever experienced such problems related to Signal Integrity (possibly) and if so how you managed to solve them.

    Thanks a lot for your time

    -Siddharth

  • Siddharth Ravikumar

    Also I am not able to access the CVS version of jtagprog as per your instructions since the anonymous checkout isn’t working.

    Would it be possible for you to kindly mail that CVS version jtagprog to my mail id.

    Much appreciated.

    Thank you.

Leave a Reply

 

 

 

You can use these HTML tags

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>